2 Ağustos 2012 Perşembe

Tourist Attraction In Las Vegas

The incredible attractions in Las Vegas include many eye catching locations, parks and places of great interest. Las Vegas is one of the most visited tourist place in USA. Below is given information about the famous tour locations and attractions in Las Vegas.
Freemont Street
It is situated near Plaza hotel. Freemont Street is packed with number of restaurants, innumerable bars and lounges. Visitors are easily attracted to it. In Freemont Street of Las Vegas you can find peddlers selling silver jewelry and artistic crafts from their pushcart stalls especially during night hours. Freemont Street is well known for its largest and longest ninety feet perched hi-tech LED screen light and sound show.
This resort is the eminent landmark in Las Vegas. It consists of forty two storey and is stretched on192 acres land. This broad area covered by Wynn is the major specialty of this place. Apart from it, Wynn features two thousands seat domed showroom of round stage. Casino in Wynn resort is expanded on 10,000-sq-metre which is the major eye stopper for tourists due to its grandeur. Here apart from staying in night you can enjoy greatly with gambling game.
Caesars Palace
Caesars Place represent the beauty and sophistication of Las Vegas. With splendid roman setting it is a most visited historical place for tourists. The attractions of this place include casino, marble statuary, grand staircases, and lavish fountains. A grand theatre is also in Caesars Palace for complete entertainment and amusement.

Natural History Museum
If you are nature loving then you can definitely enjoy visiting Natural History Museum in Las Vegas. It is well known for its gorgeous wildlife, ancient dinosaurs and beautiful live exhibitions. Here you can find many excitements like bighorn sheep, burrowing rodents, and rattlesnake. You can even get the experience of seeing live animals such as boa constrictor and tarantula.
Bellagio is a hotel casino in Las Vegas and in a very short time it has gathered so much fame that now visitors never forget to visit this place here. This is a grand hotel with countless number of capacious room and fine art gallery where you can find fine example of arts. Another attraction of this place is world famous dancing water fountains.
Thus, these are some must visited places in Las Vegas where you can go during your tour vacations in Las Vegas. You can enjoy your vacations fullest at this place.

30 Temmuz 2012 Pazartesi

kırşehir haber

Her gün onlarca, yüzlerce, binlerce olay oluyor. Ancak biz sadece görebildiklerimiz kadarıyla algılıyoruz yaşadığımız bölgeyi ve çevreyi. İşte Kırşehir’in internet gazetesi Kırşehir Gündem Gazetesi; görünmeyenleri de gösterebilmek gibi büyük bir iddia ile ama çok mütevazi imkanlarla yola çıktı. Kırşehir'in en nitelikli haber sitesi olma yolunda da ilerliyor. 
Kırşehirlileri haberdar ediyor Görünsün, duyulsun, bilinsin diye…
Kırşehirin  internet gazetesi Kırşehir Gündem ‘i ziyaret etmenizi canı gönülden dileriz.
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Uzungol English

Uzungöl (English: Long lake) is a lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon in Turkey. Over the years it has become a major tourist attraction. It is also the name of a nearby village. The lake is at a distance of 99 km from Trabzon and 19 km from Çaykaradistrict.[1] It was formed by landslide making the stream bed to become a natural dam in the valley of Haldizen Stream.[2]

The area is most famous for its natural beauty. Located in a valley between high rising mountains, the lake and village at first appear inaccessible. The surrounding greenery of the mountain forests and fog, occasionally enveloping the lake at night, also add to the scenery.
In recent years a major tourist boom has attracted a number of hotelsrestaurants, and gift and souvenir shops to be built in the area. The transport infrastructure has also been greatly improved. Recently the government proposed to build a wall around the water with cement fortification, destroying the shores of the lake, so that water from waves on the lake would not wet the nearby roads around it. This has been met with a lot of protest from locals as well as ecologists concerned with the environmental damage, stating that this move would turn the lake into a giant artificial pool.

3 Temmuz 2012 Salı

istanbul rumeli hisarı

istanbul Rumelihisarı is situated at the narrowest point with 660 meters of the Bosphorus strait, just opposite of Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle) on the Anatolian side, which is another Ottoman fortress that was built between 1393 and 1394 by Sultan Bayezid I.

Rumelihisarı was built by Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452 in order to control the sea traffic on the Bosphorus strait and prevent aid from the Black Sea to reach Constantinople during the Turkish siege of the city in 1453, particularly from the Genoese colonies such as Caffa, Sinop and Amasra. In a previous Ottoman attempt to conquer the city, Sultan Murad II (1404–1451) had encountered difficulties due to a blockade of the Bosphorus by the Byzantine fleet. The necessity of a fortress opposite of Anadoluhisarı was thus well known to the Ottomans. On the location of Rumelihisarı, there had been a Roman fortification in the past, which was used as a prison by the Byzantines and Genoese. Later on, a monastery was built there.

In preparation for the conquest of Constantinople, Sultan Mehmed II (1432–1481), son of Murad II, started to realize the construction of the fortress immediately following his second ascent to the throne in 1451. He refused the plea for peace of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI (1404–1453), who understood the intention of the Sultan. The construction began on 15 April 1452. Each one of the three main towers was named after the Pashas who supervised their construction. The Sultan personally inspected the activities on the site. With the help of thousands of masons and workers, the fortress was completed in a record time of 4 months and 16 days on 31 August 1452.

The sultan wanted to cheer up the builders so he allegedly ordered them to build the castle in the shape of the name of Muhammad the Muslim prophet, which can be seen from above. Muhammad and Mehmed share the same Arabic spelling (محمد), and so he may have also made the fortress as an homage to himself.
General view from Rumelihisarı, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in the background.

The Rumelihisarı fortification has one small tower, three main towers, and thirteen small watchtowers placed on the walls connecting the main towers. One watchtower is in the form of a quadrangular prism, six watchtowers are shaped as prisms with multiple corners and six others are cylindrical. The main tower in the north, the Saruca Pasha Tower, is in cylindrical form with its 9 stories and height of 28 m (92 ft), has a diameter of 23.30 m (76.4 ft) and its walls are 7 m (23 ft) thick. Today, this tower is called the Fatih (Conqueror) Tower after Sultan Mehmed II. Halil Pasha Tower, a dodecagon prism, which stands at the waterfront in the middle of the fortress, has also 9 stories. It is 22 m (72 ft) high with a 23.30 m (76.4 ft) diameter and the walls are 6.50 m (21.3 ft) thick. The main tower in the south, the Zağanos Pasha Tower, has only 8 stories. The cylindrical tower is 21 m (69 ft) high, has a 26.70 m (87.6 ft) diameter with 5.70 m (18.7 ft) thick walls. The space within each tower was divided up with wooden floors, each equipped with a furnace. Conical wooden roofs covered with lead crowned the towers. The outer curtain walls of the fortress are from north to south 250 m (820 ft) long and from east to west varying between 50 and 125 m (164 and 410 ft) long. Its total area is 31,250 m2 (336,372 sq ft).

The fortress had three main gates next to the main towers, one side gate and two secret gates for the arsenal and food cellars next to the southern tower. There were wooden houses for the soldiers and a small mosque, endowed by the Sultan at the time of construction. Only the minaret shaft remains of the original mosque, while the small masjid added in the mid-16th century has not survived. Water was supplied to the fortress from a large cistern underneath the mosque and distributed through three wall-fountains, of which only one has remained. Two inscriptive plaques are found attached on the walls.

The fortress, designed by architect Müslihiddin, was initially called "Boğazkesen", literally meaning "The Strait Cutter", referring to the Bosporus Strait. The name carries a secondary and more macabre meaning; as boğaz not only means strait but also "throat" in Turkish.

It was later renamed as Rumelihisarı, which means "Fortress on the Land of the Romans", i.e. Byzantine Europe, or the Balkan peninsula.
Usage in the past
Halil Pasha Tower, Rumelihisarı.

A battalion of 400 Janissaries were stationed in the fortress, and large cannons were placed in the Halil Pasha Tower, the main tower on the waterfront. A Venetian ship coming from the Black Sea which ignored the order to halt by the commander of the fortress, Firuz Ağa, was bombarded and sunk, and its surviving crewmen were impaled as a warning to any who might attempt the same. These cannons were later used until the second half of the 19th century to greet the sultan when he passed by sea.

After the fall of Constantinople, the fortress served as a customs checkpoint. Rumelihisarı, which was designated to control the passage of ships through the strait, eventually lost its strategic importance when a second pair of fortresses was built further up the Bosphorus, where the strait meets the Black Sea. In the 17th century, it was used as a prison, primarily for foreign prisoners of war. Rumelihisarı was partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1509, but was repaired soon after. In 1746, a fire destroyed all the wooden parts in two of the main towers. The fortress was repaired by Sultan Selim III (1761–1807). However, a new residential neighborhood was formed inside the fortress after it was abandoned in the 19th century.

In 1953, on the orders of President Celal Bayar, the inhabitants were relocated and extensive restoration work began on 16 May 1955, which lasted until 29 May 1958. Since 1960 Rumelihisarı has been a museum and an open-air theater for various concerts at festivals during the summer months.

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge which spans the Bosporus is located close to the fortress, to the north.

Rumelihisarı is open to public every day except Wednesdays from 9:00 to 16:30.

The fortress was depicted on various Turkish banknotes during 1939-1986

istanbul bebek photo gallery

istanbul bebek

Bebek is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district. It is located on the European shores of the Bosphorus and is surrounded by similarly affluent neighbourhoods such as Arnavutköy, Etiler and Rumeli Hisarı.

The direct translation of the word "Bebek" from Turkish is "baby", which is a reference to the neighborhood's attractive positioning on the Bosphorus with its deep, sheltered bay and sweeping views in both directions along the waterway. It is believed to be a shortened form of "Boğaz'ın Gözbebeği", which translates, literally, as "the pupil of the Bosphorus", or more appropriately, "the apple of Bosphorus' eye", as the literal translation of "pupil" in Turkish is "eye baby".

Bebek was a popular residential district under Ottoman rule, and continues to be so today. Its population reflected the diverse society of the time, which is still visible in Bebek's historic architecture and contemporary constituencies.

Bebek is also home to Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, i.e. Bosphorus University, a public university established in 1971 that is one of Turkey's premier institutions of higher education. The University occupies the buildings and grounds of the now-defunct higher education division of Robert College - a historic American academic institution founded in 1863 by wealthy New York merchant Christopher Robert and American missionary and educator Cyrus Hamlin. Following the coeducational merger of the formerly all-male Robert College with sister school American College for Girls, all operations of the former were moved from Bebek to the wooded Arnavutköy campus of the latter, where it continues to operate as the leading institution of secondary education in Turkey.
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30 Haziran 2012 Cumartesi

Fethiye (Telmessos)

Fethiye is one of the most popular resorts along the Turkish coast. It's set on a wide bay, strewn with many islands.

Fethiye is 135 kilometers (84 miles) southwest of Marmaris in Mugla province, and has an outstanding and busy marina. The ancient name of the city is Telmessos where you can see a fortress on the hill overlooking the city which was built by Knights of Rhodes. Fethiye is known for its rock tombs carved into the faces of the cliffs by the Lycians. These are elaborately carved and are remarkable. One of them is the tomb of Amnytas dating from the 4th century BC built in Doric architectural style and is worth well visiting. Other historical places in the city are several sarcopaghi, theater and the Fethiye tower.

The Beach and the Sovalye Island are perfect destinations for those who like to enjoy the most beautiful sea. Belcegiz Bay is also good for such a visit and provides natural mountain scenery. The guest houses (pansiyon) here will give you all the basic comfort you expect. The bay forms the dreamlike Belcegiz - Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon) known as "a paradise that God granted to Earth", a very fine place with 3 km of natural beach and crystal blue waters in enchanting surroundings. For camping, Belcegiz Beach is ideal, and for picnicking try the Kidiril Park, for sightseeing the Gemiler Islands with their Byzantine ruins among the pine trees are recommended. At Koturumsu, a heaven-like beauty awaits you, where you may reach only by boats. There are waterfalls flowing across valleys where thousands of butterflies, exhibiting tremendous shades of colors, fly amongst the pine forest bordering of the lovely beach. Some of the other natural attractions are Katranci Bay, Gunluk (Kusuk Kargi) Bay, Oyuktepe, and Göcek with its harbor and marina. Lately, paragliding from Baba mountain became one of the most popular sports and it gives magnificent views for people flying over this great beach lagoon.

Around Fethiye, there are important ancient cities of the Lycians. To the southeast of Fethiye lies Xanthos at Kinik village, an important capital of Lycians. Its setting is naturally adorned while Letoon, by Kumluova village and nearby Xanthos, is also interesting. Letoon was a cult center during the Lycian period and remains of temples dedicated to Leto, Artemis and Apollo can be seen. Patara by Ovagelmis, Pinara by Minare, Tlos by Doger, Cadianda by Yesil Üzümlü, Sidyma by Dodurga, Karmilassos by Kaya, Pydnai by Kavadere, Araxa by Ören, Lydoe by Kapidag, Lissa and Arsada by Kayadibi, and Daedela by Inlice are other significant sites to visit in the environs of Fethiye. There are also many camping and picnicking facilities around the town.

The town dates back to Lycian times when it was known as Telmessos. Later known as Anastasiopolis in Byzantine times, then Megri and finally Fethiye this century after Fethi Bey, a local pilot and war hero.  He was the first pilot in Turkey and he died when his plane crashed. Pilot Fethi bey statue is at Fethi Bey park near the big pier in front of the Telmessos theatre. If you watch the fisherman in front of Fethi Bey park you can see the Caretta Caretta swimming around the boats between 9-10 am. Despite being a popular English package tourist centre, Fethiye makes a good base to visit the surrounding sites and beaches.

In the town itself is the recently excavated amphitheatre next to the marina and the impressive Lycian rock tombs (Amyntas Tomb) which are floodlit at night. For more culture, visit the town small museum which contains some interesting exhibits from nearby archeological sights. There are some impressive Turkish Baths to experience.  There are 4 HAMAM - one in the old town (Traditional Old Turkish Bath), one by the otogar which will take a group booking (Kaya Hamami) and 2 in hotels (Ata Park & Letoonia). It is a great idea to go for a nice relaxing afternoon.

The town has an excellent Tuesday Market. This is the best place to buy all those cheap fake designer labels and also good for souvenirs, cheap CDs and endless food/fresh fruit sellers. Best just to go for the experience - hundreds of Turkish village folk descend on Fethiye for market day to buy and sell their goods. Fethiye is the third best area in Turkey for to learn scuba and expert diving. There are several companies operating certificate and daily courses. (Divers Delight and European Dive Centre). The nearest beach in Fethiye is Calis Beach, which can be reached by a short dolmus, bus or boat trip.  It is not a particularly good beach, it does get full of package tourists in high season, but it is convenient.  For a more secluded, peaceful swim, head to one of the secluded bays on the outskirts of the town, Katranci Bay, Günlüklü(Kargi), Aksaz and Boncuklu. These are popular with locals and can be reached by local dolmus.


The Twelve Islands (oniki adalar) is a area of islands between Fethiye and Gocek. The only way to enjoy them is to cruise in a Turkish gulet or take a tourist daily boat trip.  Gulet cruises provide access to the tourist-free secluded bays where you can snorkel, swim, climb the cliffs or just relax. The most interesting islands and mainland bays include Merdivenli Step Ladder bay which has an ancient cave cut into the side of the rock. Afrodit koyu (Cleopatra Bath) is an ancient ruined bath where Cleopatra supposedly bathed when she was travelling en route from Egypt to Rome. Bedri Rahmi bay was named after the Turkish artist Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu. He visited the island several times and painted a fish eye picture on the rock. Domuz Adasi (Pig Island) was so named because of the pigs that swam there. Tersane Adasi Shipyard Island has ruins of an ancient shipyard. Göcek Adasi is opposite the small sleepy mainland village of Gocek.  It is a small, pretty marina town that retains its old Turkish charm with interesting unusual souvenir shops, excellent restaurants, cocktail bars and enough supermarkets to supply all the yachts visiting the marinas.  Göcek has many pansiyons and is connected to Fethiye and Dalaman by frequent buses.


This is the famous beach and blue lagoon that features on every travel poster of Turkey. The long, sandy beach is really spectacular and it shelters the lagoon from the sea. By the lagoon there is a national park - it is an excellent place to swim. Be warned though, in summer, the main stretch of beach is full of sun loungers, umbrellas and hundreds of English package tourists. Opposite the dolmus stop there are lots of daily trip boats waiting to hassle you! Escape them at the swimming Tonoz pool bar.  For the price of a drink or a snack (even a cola) you can pass the afternoon spread-eagled on a sunlounger plunging when the mood takes you! It is open till midnight with poolside cocktails and raves! Another great bar is the legendary Buzz Bar - with cocktail specials (try the ice-cream cocktails). But be warned - if you are on a tight budget, the tourist restaurants and grocery stores can be a bit expensive because they are geared towards package tourists. Eat at the pansiyon/hostel to save money.


Paragliding in Ölüdeniz is the best spot for paragliding in Turkey. For a reasonable price you will be whisked off in a jeep for an hour up to the summit of Babadag mountain (1975m). The tandem paragliding will take approximately half an hour back down to the beach (don't forget your camera)! Check out the prices first, but remember cheapest is not always best - go with a reputable company that follows all safety precautions - Focus, Sky sports, Pink Team (book from Fethiye and they can pick you up). Other waterspout options include parascending (from boats on the beach) and pedals (for hire on the lagoon). Around Ölüdeniz The daily boat trips will take you cruising around the nearby bays including Soguksu (Cold Spring Bay),


Gemiler (St Nicholas Island) which has an ancient ruined city on the top of the hill.  Here you can walk along the old cobbled market streets it is an excellent setting to watch the sunset with a drink or two! The church is dedicated to St Nicholas who was born at Patara, and is immortalised forever as Noel Baba Santa Claus. But some archaeology writers believe him to born at Gemiler island.


Kaya Köyü (Kaya ghost town) is a deserted ghost town. Until 1923 it was known as Levissi when it was built by and inhabited by Christian Greek Orthodox. They left as a result of the population exchange when all Christian Greeks were forced to move to Greece. The Macedonian Muslims that were sent to Kaya, believed that its previous inhabitants had left a curse on the hillside village and instead built their houses on the surrounding flat land. Now the hillside is still covered with the ghostly ruins of 1500 cottages. There are three churches worth looking at - the Panayia Piryiotissa basilica, the main church, still has murals, mosaic floors and marble altar screens. In the south-west corner of the church precinct is the charnel house piled high with human leg bones - the departing Greeks took the exhumed skulls of their ancestors away with them. Best time to go is late afternoon when it starts to get cooler, and the mass tourists have left - take some drinks and watch the sunset from the top of the hill - it is an eerie haunting feeling as the sun begins to set. There is a good restaurant next to the dolmus stop complete with bar-b-q and swimming pool for customers. Dolmuses run direct from Fethiye, or change at Hisaronu (the village before Ölüdeniz). If you are feeling energetic, you can walk along the ancient road that leads from behind the tombs in Fethiye, direct to Kaya (7 km). Or walk from Ölüdeniz, a 3 hour trek along the mountainous coastline (although it makes more sense to walk down from Kaya to Ölüdeniz).



This valley is named after the hundreds of Jersey Tiger Moths that live in the limestone canyon every summer. From the beach you can climb up the stunning waterfalls of the national park. It is a tough climb, with only a rope ladder in places, so take care.  But the waterfalls definitely make it all worthwhile, especially on a hot summers day. Continue climbing up to the village at the top if you want to stay in one of the pensions there, or back down to the restaurant on the beach which has wooden platforms to sleep on. Remember to check the times of the returning boats, and take some liquid supplies if you are planning to spend the night.



This is a spectacular 18 km. Gorge cut into the Akdaglar mountain. From the carpark, first you must walk along a wooden boardwalk towards the restaurant (built over the cascading water). If you are not tempted by the yummy pancakes (gozleme) or trout, you must wade across the river (you can rent plastic shoes if you are unprepared) and from this point, you begin your ascent up the gorge, clambering over the boulders. It is relatively easy at first, getting gradually steeper and harder. The gorge is totally shaded, so makes a good destination on a boiling hot day. Remember to dress appropriately - you will get wet, and take waterproof bags for your cameras.Back at the carpark, there are more restaurants over the bridge with camping if you want to stay overnight. From Fethiye, take the direct Saklikent dolmus (1 hour) from the dolmus otogar.



This former Greek village inhabited by Ottoman Greeks was formally known as Kalamaki. Now it is a pretty fishing village with narrow winding streets built on a hillside, overlooking the tiny bay. Although it is lined with tourist shops and is a popular upmarket package holiday destination, it still retains more of its original charm than its neighbouring towns. Ideal for a few quiet days, it does however lack a bit on budget accommodation and restaurants. There is a nice small beach right next to the harbour where you can pass the day sunbathing and swimming or if you get too bored, there are a number of daily boat trips around the nearby bays. It is an excellent area for snorkelling and swimming.


Another Greek populated town that was known as Andifli until 1923. It is new name Kas means eyebrow or something carved. Although a pretty town with a fishing boats and yachts in the harbour it is now quite touristic but there are no beaches in Kas itself. However it makes a good base to visit the nearby sites and coastal bays and there are many budget pensions and restaurants. The ruins of ancient Antiphellos are scattered all around Kas. Out of the town, 500m along Hastane Caddesi from the harbour mosque is the small but almost complete Hellenistic amphitheatre with 26 rows of seats still intact (now used occasionally for wrestling matches!) At the top of the hill, 100m away is a unique Doric tomb also very well preserved and in the town is the Lion tomb with 2 burial chambers. But if you are getting fed up of ancient tombs, Kas is considered the best place along the entire Turkish coastline for scuba diving as the sea here is the cleanest, the clearest and arguably has the best visibility and greatest variety of sea life.  There are a number of dive operators in the area offering full day, half day trips and certificate courses visiting tunnels, caves and even a World War II bomber wreck.If you are not feeling so adventurous, it is an ideal place to take boat trips to visit either Patara, Kekova or the Greek island of Kastellorizo (Meis) (daytrip only). You can take a direct bus from Fethiye to Kas which will take around 3. hours.



This was yet another ancient Lycian city, presumably taking its name from Mount Olympos, thought to be present day Tahtali Dag, 16 km to the north - one of over 20 mountains with the name Olympos in the classical world. It first appeared in history in 2nd century BC when it was striking its own coins in the manner of Lycians, although early history is shrouded in mystery. The principal deity of Olympos was Hephaestos (Vulcan to the Romans) who was God of fire and blacksmiths. Ruins of the temple dedicated to him can be found near the Chimera, he was considered to be a native of this area.  The city went into decline around 1st century BC, but improved with the Romans only to suffer pirate attacks in 3rd century. After a middle age spell of Venetians, Genoese and Rhodians who left fortresses along the coast, the city was abandoned by 15th century. The area is now a major destination with many treehouses - simple wooden platforms and bungalows to stay in.

The walk from the treehouses will take you eventually to the beautiful beach, walking parallel to the banks of the old stream. The main ruins line the banks of this stream, scattered admidst the thick undergrowth and include extensive Byzantine Genoese fortifications overlooking the beach from each creek bank.  There are 2 harbour tombs, a quay wall, an arcaded warehouse and walls of a Byzantine church. In the river itself is a well preserved pillar from a vanished bridge. There is also a theatre, a Byzantine villa with mosaic floors and a mausoleum-style tomb. Due to its position though, Olympos has avoided the general package mass, so there are no clear paths, and the ruins are difficult to spot but this all adds to its charm, retaining all the character of an undiscovered ruin.

North of Olympos, in the foothills of Tahtali Dag is the eternal flame of the Chimaera. It is a cluster of spontaneous and inextinguishable flames out of cracks in the bare rocky hillside of Mount Olympos. It is not known what causes the blazing phenomenon of gas seeping from the earth but it is known that the fire has been burning since antiquity and inspired the local worship of Hephaistos (Vulcan). In ancient times, they were much more vigorous, and could easily be seen at night by sailors. The Chimaera is the name for the fire breathing monster with lion head and forelegs, a goat rear and a snake for a tail (which has been used for the logo of the Turkish filling station Petrol Ofisi).



This is a small pretty town on the northern edge of KÖYCEGIZ lake. Apart from the lake, an excellent pension and a handful of restaurants, there is little else in this sleepy town. But there is however plenty to do. If strolling along the lakeshore, or reading in one of the shady tea gardens sounds too dull and boring, you can take the pension bicycles for an outing. A 7 km trip north (about 40 mins.) and a short hike will take you to the waterfall (you can alternatively take the dolmus). The waterfall is an excellent place to cool down after the ride. Great jumping possibilities for those daredevils! If that sounds too energetic, take one of the daily boat excursions.


ancient ruins of Kaunos

From the boat you can see the ancient ruins of Caunos set high on a cliff overlooking Dalyan village. Caunos which dates back to 9th century BC became an important city and the ruins include tombs, parts of an acropolis and other structures (baths, a basilica, defensive walls). The people of Caunos were said to be famous for their yellow skin and eyes as a result of malaria. Between May and September, if you are lucky, you might spot a loggerhead turtle (caretta caretta) on Iztuzu beach, an excellent beach for swimming. The turtles use the beach as a nesting site laying their eggs (up to 120) at night in the sand. At the thermal baths (Sultanate Kaplicalari) the hot mineral waters are rich in calcium, sulphur, iron, nitrates, potassium and other mineral salts and are said to be good for skin complaints.


mud baths

Or get a mud body pack at the mud baths. They are claimed to increase male potency and cure rheumatism and gynecological problems. A short taxi ride from Köycegiz and you can visit Beyobasi village where there are 2 superb wooden platform restaurants built over the river. Feast yourself on trout or roasted lamb. The Lycians were an independent-minded race of people believed to be of Cretan origin. They settled and defended the wide peninsula between present-day Fethiye and Antalya from around 1400 BC. They had their own unique language, still to be seen on inscriptions and still not yet fully understood, but the most remarkable feature that they left behind are the uniquely styled rock tombs that can be found all around the area.


This is one of the most Ancient Lycian cities situated high on a rocky hill which gives awesome views of the Xanthos valley.  The site itself consists of confusing ruins.  Of the rock tombs, the Tomb of Bellerophon is the best of the graves (northern base of the hill).  It is so named from the carving on the left wall of the porch of Bellerophon riding the winged horse Pegasus.  Other ruins include the Agora (market place) and market hall, the baths and across the road, a stunning second century BC theatre with 34 rows of seats still remaining.  Trout is the most popular dish at the nearby restaurants, or carry on a further 2 km to the Yaka Park restaurant, an old watermill where you can play with and tickle the fish before eating them!  There are no direct dolmuses to Tlos from Fethiye.  If you dont want to take an organised tour, dont want to hire scooters or a car, you could take the dolmus towards Saklikent, ask the driver where to get off, and trek the last 4km up hill.


Pinara means something round in ancient Lycian language, probably because of the shape of the original, upper acropolis. It was one of the larger Lycian cities but is now not particularly one of Turkey most impressive ancient ruins. However the isolated setting makes it a worthwhile trip.  The tombs are the most interesting feature of the ruins with the Royal tomb, unique for its detailed carvings, containing a single persona tomb, probably of Royal blood.  There is a house tomb with a roof, in the form of a gothic arch at which point is a pair of stone ox horns, thought to ward off evil spirits, an agora (market place), a temple,       an odeon, a church with tower and a theatre. Infrequent dolmuses will drop you  at  the start of the Pinara road from where it is a 6 km walk to the site, or bargain with the driver to take you all the way.


PATARA beach

This area is the birthplace of Saint Nicolas, later known as Santa Claus (see entry for Myra), was the principal Lycian port which now lies in ruins on the stunning white sand beach. The entrance to the city is 2km from the village of Gelemis through an almost intact Roman gateway.  The many individual ruins include baths, a basilica, a second century temple, an acropolis, a granary, more Lycian tombs and a theatre, half covered by the wind-driven sand.  The beach, also a turtle nesting ground at night is nearly 22km long, so take advantage of the beach dolmus!  It is a popular destination for all beach sports. The nearby village has many pensions and several restaurants.  Dolmuses run frequently from Fethiye (1or 2  hours) in the summer and larger buses en route to Antalya stop here. They usually stop on the main road, 4km from Gelemis.


LETOON Hellonistic theatre

The Letoon is the shrine of the goddess Leto, who according to legend was loved by Zeus.  Unimpressed, Zeus wife Hera commanded that Leto spend an eternity wandering around from country to country.  She spent much of this time in Lycia becoming the Lycian national deity.  The federation of Lycian cities then built this impressive religious sanctuary to worship her, it was the official religious sanctuary of the Lycian federation where national festivals were celebrated.  The sanctuary became a centre of Christian worship and a church was consecrated here.  It was not until the Arab raids in the seventh century that the site was eventually abandoned.  The remains were discovered in 1840 and excavated in 1962.  The site contains ruins of 3 temples side by side - Apollo (left), Artemis (middle) and Leto (right). Apollos temple has a good mosaic floor showing a lyre and a bow and arrow.  The nymphaeum is permanently flooded and inhabited by frogs which is appropriate, as worship to Leto was somehow associated with water.  There is also a large Hellonistic theatre which is well preserved and a number of interesting inscriptions.  One of the inscriptions states the conditions of entry to the sanctuary, including a strict dress code which stated that the clothing must be simple, with rich jewelry and elaborate hairstyles forbidden.



The hilltop city is perhaps the most fascinating Lycian ruin with breathtaking views of the Xanthos River.  Unfortunately when it was discovered, many of the monuments were shipped to the British Museum in London in 1842 when the traveller Charles Fellows visited it.  Many of the inscriptions and decorations at the site are copies of the originals.  The city dates back to possibly 540 BC and during Lycian times, it was the capital and grandest city, although during its period it has suffered a chequered history of wars and destruction including two major holocausts when the cities inhabitants destroyed themselves and their city in defence.

The most important construction is the 4th century Nereid Monument, a beautiful decorated Ionic temple on a high podium which is sadly now in London and marked with a plaque at Xanthos, however there is still enough left to make it a well-worth visit.

Still standing are the Arch of Vespasian and adjoining Hellanistic gateway bearing an inscription recording that Antiochas the Great dedicated the city to Leto, Apollo and Artemis, the national deities of Lycia.  The Xanthian Obelisk is the remains of another pillar tomb labeled as the Inscribed Pillar and covered on all sides by the longest known Lycian inscription which runs to 250 lines and includes 12 lines of Greek verse.

The spectacular Roman theatre, built on the site of an earlier Greek structure is almost complete and lies next to the Lycian acropolis - the remains of a square building believed to have been an early palace. There are residential sections from the Hellanistic, Roman and Byzantine eras.  There is also a Byzantine basilica, Roman acropolis, freestanding sarcophagi and a Byzantine monastery containing an open courtyard with wash basins along one side and more Lycian tombs across the road from the main site.  Dolmuses will take you as far as Kinik (en route to Patara) and from here it is less than 2 km to the Letoon turn off from where it is a 20 minute uphill walk.


The area known as Kekova contains the central village Ücagız on the mainland. It is a small fishing/farming village that remains relatively unspoilt.  It still retains some old Turkish charm with old white houses and cows and chickens wandering freely around the streets.  The surrounding area also features many ruins at Teimiussa, Simena, Kale, Aperlae and Kyaneai on the mainland. Kekova Island is also known as Batik Sehir Sunken City.  It is the site of an ancient unidentified city destroyed when an earthquake which disturbed the land, causing some of the ancient houses to sink under the clear water, creating a sunken city.  There are remains of stairs, pavements, house walls and a long quay.  As snorkeling and diving are forbidden over the ruins, the only way to see them, is to take a trip from either Kas or Kekova.  You have a choice of a glass bottom boat or using just a mask over the side of a smaller boat.  Kekova has the only beach in the area, and the old charm of the village makes it a memorable place to stay.  There are several restaurants and pensions clustered around the port and there are excellent trekking possibilities around the island.  On top of the island is a castle (ancient Simena) - a good place to climb for the excellent views of the bay.

The town is not of great importance, but from here it is a 2km walk to the remains of the ancient city of Myra.  Myra was one of the most prominent members of the Lycian federation and retained its importance throughout the middle ages, because of its association with the bishop Saint Nicholas (Santa Claus).  St Paul also stopped here on his voyage to Rome.  The city name by tradition is said to be derived from the Greek word for myrrh, the gum resin used in production of incense.  It dates back to 42 BC and became the capital of Lycia in 5th century.  Despite the city long history as a religious, commercial and administrative town, Arab raids in 7th century and silting of the harbour led to its decline.  Much of the city remains still buried.  Visible is the well preserved Roman theatre (rebuilt in 141 AD), striking honeycomb of Lycian tombs, which you can view closer by climbing the ladders.  The tombs are said to resemble Lycian houses with wooden beams.  The river necropolis tombs including the painted tomb featuring a reclining bearded man and his family.You can take a boat trip from Demre around the sunken city of Kekova.

Andriake is 2 km beyond Demre and 5 km from Myra. The main reason to come here is for the beach and the beauty of the skyline. The ancient Adriake was the site of Hadrian granary used to store locally grown grain and was vital to the whole roman world since its contents were sent to Rome to be distributed around the Empire.

Myra most famous citizen was Saint Nicholas , born at Patara in 300 AD. As well as being Saint Nicholas - Santa Claus, he is the patron saint of sailors, virgins, children, merchants, scholars, pawnbrokers and Holy Russia and was the Bishop of Myra.  He is identified in the Christian world as a kind old present giver, arising from a story of his kindness to the 3 daughters of a poor man who were left without a dowry.  He is said to have thrown 3 purses of gold into the house one night enabling them to find husbands instead of selling themselves into prostitution.  He was buried in the church at Demre which is now dedicated to him but is believed that in 1087, his bones were carried off to Italy by a group of devout raiders from Bari.  They missed a few bones which can now be seen in the museum in Antalya.  The church become a popular place of pilgrimage when visitors to his tomb made claims of miraculous events and a monastery was built nearby in the 11th century so even after the removal of the bones, pilgrimages still visited.  The modern day church bears little resemblance to the 3rd century original having been rebuilt gradually over the centuries, but it is still worth a visit with the original mosaic floor panels and a rare typical Byzantine synthronon (bishops throne).  The original tomb is said to be buried under the church, but the sarcophagus on display is worth looking at.

Karagöz and Hacivat, a Turkish shadow play

Karagöz and Hacivat, a Turkish shadow play

Karagöz & Hacivat is a Turkish shadow play taking its name from its main character Karagöz. The origin of the shadow plays is accepted as southeastern part of Asia around Java. Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi says that the play was first performed at the Ottoman palaces in the late 14th century. Some others say that this play came into Anatolia after Yavuz Sultan Selim, who had conquered Egypt in 1517, had brought the shadow play artists to his court.

Karagoz and Hacivat shadow puppetsAccording to a legend, they were working as construction workers in a mosque in Bursa. Although their satiric jokes entertained other workers it also held up the building of the mosque by their constant joking together. As a result it made the sultan very angry and anxious about whether Karagoz and Hacivat could encourage rebellion in others, so they were executed. The construction of the mosque was completed without them, but their comrades did not forget them and kept their jokes alive, telling them over and over. In time, the adventures of Karagoz and Hacivat gained a new dimension and the traditional Turkish shadow puppet theatre was born. Their monumental tomb stands in Bursa today.

Karagoz & Hacivat was the most enjoyed entertainment of the Ottoman period and was widely performed for the public and in private houses between the 17th and 19th centuries especially during Ramadan, and at circumcisions, feast festivals, coffee houses and even in gardens.

Karagöz play is played depending on the talent of an artist. Moving the design on curtain, voicing them, dialects or imitations are all made by the artist. The subjects of Karagöz plays are funny elements with double meanings, exaggerations, verbal plays, and imitating accents. There is always satire and irony.

These puppets with jointed limbs are 35-40cm sized and they are generally made from the skin of camel or cows. The skins are made semi-transparent and painted with Indian ink or root paints. Then they are embroidered with sharp painted blades and the pieces are tied with ropes. This is truly an art.

The white curtain on which Karagöz is played is named as ayna (mirror), and the light behind it as sema (candle light). There is just one puppeteer, known as hayali (imaginary), assisted by an apprentice, who installs the curtain and brings the puppets in order of appearance.

The main characters of the play are of course Karagoz and Hacivat. Karagoz represents the public morals and common sense, the ordinary man in the street, and is straightforward and reliable. He is almost illiterate; usually unemployed and embarks on money earning projects that never work. He is often kind of rude. You can recognize him by his turban, his bald head and his black beard. His left arm is longer than the other one. His friend Hacivat instead is the opposite of him; he is educated in a Moslem theology school, speaks Ottoman Turkish and uses poetical and literary language. He's very clever as well.

Today a limited number of artists continue the studies related to the art of Hacivat & Karagoz and they're conducted by the Presidency of Turkey National Center of International Puppet and Shadow Play Union (UNIMA) and the Ministry of Culture.

Horon folk dance

Horon folk dance
The origins of Anatolian folk dances go back far into the past, when they were part of divine festivities. This is evident in the sin-sin which is danced at night and takes its name from the moon goddess Sin. Other dances, too, such as the Düz Halay of Sivas, the Basbar of Erzurum, the Bengu of Bergama, the Türkmen kizi (Türkmen's daughter) of Corum, the Topal Kosma of Kastamonu, the Güvende of Bursa, the Harmandali, Arpazli and Yalabik of Kozak and Kasikci, and the Horon and Siskara of Trabzon were all part of sacred rituals.

The shared theme of folk dances is the display of courage, the movements are an expression of natural character, and their purpose is to pass down messages from generation to generation in the passage of social life, as well as to liven up communal events such as holidays, festivals and weddings with increment, costume, voice, music and rhythm.

The way the dancers sweep upwards, tighten ranks, open up their arms like wings, or strike their knees on the ground: the sounds of drum and fife, bagpipes, and kemence: the shouts, and joining arm, hand and shoulder, all have their symbolic meanings.

The origin of the horon dances of the Black Sea coast is the ancient koron-horon of pagan worship. This word comes from hur-kor, meaning sun. Researchers have identified over fifty variations on the horon in a single region. These dances demand exceptional speed, agility and skill in the dancers, who are generally accompanied by the kemence.

Folk dances of izmir

Zeybek Dances (a dance of western Anatolia or its music) appear to our minds whenever Western Anatolian Folk Dances especially of Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Balikesir and Mugla are told.

Zeybek dances are various about 150 types, however they can be gathered into two main classifications.

1) Slow Zeybek
2) Yörük Zeybek (Fast Zeybek)

In Izmir Zeybek Dances that are to be danced whether single or with a group, display the Efe's and Zeybek's self-assurances, mainly braveness and their challenges. The Zeybek's who show braveness and honestly with all their excitement are a symbol of dignity and valor.

Some of the Zeybek dances of Izmir and its surroundings are stated below: Arpazli, Harmandali, Kordon, Bergama, Dagli, Kasikçi Koca Arap, Elifoglu, Iki parmak, Sogukkuyu , Süslü, Jandarma, Yunt daglari, Bakirli, Kasnak, Hantuman, Bas bas, Sabahin Seher Vakti, Ötme Bülbülüm, Yagdi yagmur, Çakici, Ince Mehmet, Karsilama, Kozak, Somali, Yandir, Yörük Ali, Minarede Ezan Var, Sümbül Bahçesinde Karanfili, Kemeralti Zeybekleri.
Musical instruments:

The musical instruments that are used in Zeybek dances are clarinet and drum in the open areas, baglama (a plucked instrument with 3 double strings and a long neck) is used in the closed areas. The double clarinet is traditional while the first clarinet plays the melody the other one accompanies it.

The costumes of Efe and Zeybek are told below.

Efe wear a reddish helmet which is made of broadcloth and this helmet called "Kabalak". Efe tie "Posu" that the young girls embroidered around their helmets. The blue shalwar (baggy trousers) that Efe wear are called "Çasir Menevrek". These shalwars' length extends to the knee-caps and they are open in both winter and summer. The flank side of these "Çasir Menevreks" are black-silk caftan (robe). They wear the tassels that is called "Koza" and they are long. This tassel must be 100 drachma (400th part of an okka). If the jackets that the Efe wear have sleeves, this type is called "Cepken" and if not, then it is called "Çamadan". These are made of blue or dark-blue broad-cloth and they are embroidered with the black-silk caftan with various motifs and Zeybeks wear silver-thread cepkens. The mintan with thin round disks and without color is called "Alakye", is worn to the waist and leather weapon case which is tied to it. In this weapon case "Kulakli Yatagan Knife" takes place.

Besides a handkerchief a silver tobacco case, an amber cigarette holder and two okkas of clean wool-shorn is used in case of an injury and from flank side of the weapon-case, an iron stick that is called "mese" leans over. He uses his knife to sharpen this Pala or to defend himself in case of a confrontation against agony. Two Efe never shoot each other, because this signifies "cowardness".

Efe wear "Pazubent" that is covered with silver to their arms, an "enam" and a silver "hamay" lean over on their breasts. Pazubent is worn from the childhood to the end of life. Efe's weapons are silver repose work that is embroidered with a silver repose. They wear cross-cartridges called "Karlilik" on their breasts. The embroidered boots that Efe wear are called "Kayalik" only Efe wear them. Zeybeks and infants wear "Çariksi" (slippers). Both in winter and summer the wool socks are worn and knee-pad that is called "Kepmen" are worn on it. The daggers which are put "Kepmen" are used in dances. Efe and Zeybek are distinguished from each other with the difference in their mintans; Efe's mintans are not buttoned up, their breasts are seen.
Meanings of the figures in Zeybek:

Some differences are seen in their figures of walking, turning, rising, knee-downing and holding up their arms (the walking with or without ricochets) and turnings in the Zeybek plays display Zeybek's self-assurance, honesty, braveness and challenging.

Turkish folklore

Turkish folklore

In Turkey, folklore studies began at the beginning of the 20th century. Ziya Gökalp mentioned folklore ("halkiyat") in the magazine "Towards the People" in 1913. Later Riza Tevfik Bölükbasi and Mehmet Fuat Köprülü wrote articles on the subject in various magazines. A Folklore Association was set up in 1927 and the "People's Houses" (1932) both carried out important survey work in this field. Today these activities are continued in various university faculties.
Main guidelines in Turkish Folklore
Turning points in peoples' lives

This encompasses the preservation of traditional ceremonies connected with birth, childhood, circumcision, marriage and death. These are traditions that have their origins in Shamanism and Islamic beliefs.
Folkloric Knowledge

Folk medicine and veterinary medicine, religious traditions, the calendar, practical weather forecasting and law all exhibit rich folkloric characteristics stemming from traditional Turkish society. These subjects, each of which today is a branch of science, are themes for folkloric research, as they have preserved their traditional forms outside the cities.

Turkish folklore has a rich treasure of games for children and adults. These can be played in the garden at home, during chats and while visiting people. At times these games require special equipment. Games of "Hide and Seek", games based on religion and sorcery and games for the mind based on imitation come into this category.

Official religious and seasonal holidays and the beliefs and customs associated with them are also an important reason for festivities.

Traditional clothing forms a part of Turkish traditional culture. In the past the Turks would weave their own clothing and make dyes from natural plant ingredients, in a way that reflected their feelings in the designs they created. Each region had its own characteristics in the way of clothing, headwear, scarves and socks, which have all, through the centuries, attracted interest and admiration.
Turkish Folk Dances

Folk dances have different characteristics based on region and location and are generally engaged in during weddings, journeys to the mountains in the summer, when sending sons off to military service and during religious and national holidays. The best known folk dances are:

This Black Sea dance is performed by men only, dressed in black with silver trimmings. The dancers link arms and quiver to the vibrations of the kemence, a primitive type of violin. For more info CLICK HERE
Kasik Oyunu

The Spoon Dance is performed from Konya to Silifke and consists of gaily dressed male and female dancers clicking out the dance rhythm with a pair of wooden spoons in each hand.
Kilic Kalkan

The Sword and Shield Dance of Bursa represents the Ottoman conquest of the city. It is performed by men only, dressed in early Ottoman battle dress, who dance to the sound of clashing swords and shields without music.


In this Aegean dance, colorfully dressed male dancers, called "Efe", symbolize courage and heroism. For more info CLICK HERE
Turkish Folk Music

The lively Turkish folk music, which originated on the steppes of Asia, is in complete contrast to the refined Turkish classical music of the Ottoman court. Until recently, folk music was not written down, and the traditions have been kept alive by the 'asiklar', or Turkish troubadours. Distinct from Turkish folk music is Ottoman military music, now performed by the 'mehter takimi' (Janissary Band) in Istanbul, which originated in Central Asia, and is played with kettle drums, clarinets, cymbals and bells. The mystical music of the Whirling Dervishes is dominated by the haunting sound of the reed pipe or 'ney', and can be heard in Konya during the Mevlana Festival in December.
Performing Arts

There are six varieties of traditional Turkish performing arts:
Village Plays

Plays are put on in accordance with rural traditions on special days, weddings and holidays.

A kind of one-act dramatic play where the narrator also imitates the various characters in the play.

Traditional show theatre, where the shadow puppets of human and animal figures, cut out of leather and colored, are thrown onto a white curtain using a light source behind it.
Orta Oyun

In style and theme resembles Karagöz, but is performed by real actors.
Tuluat Theater

A mixture of Orta Oyun and western theater.
Turkish Folk Literature

Composed of "Tekke" and "Asik," works of literary worth, often anonymous and passed down from generation to generation. These include epics, legends, folk poems, ballads, elegies, folk songs, riddles, folk tales anecdotes, proverbs, expressions and rhymes.
Turkish Folk Heroes
Nasrettin Hoca

A 13th century humorist and sage from Aksehir. His witticisms are known throughout Turkey and often appear in conversation. For more info CLICK HERE


A jester, said to have lived in Bursa in the 14th century and now immortalized as a shadow puppet. Karagöz is a rough man of the people who uses his ribald wit to get the better of his pompous friend, Hacivat. The puppets are made from gaily painted, translucent animal skins and are projected onto a white screen.

Yunus Emre

The 13th century philosopher poet, one of Turkey's national treasures, promoted basic themes of universal love, friendship, brotherliness and divine Justice. His simple and pure writing is relevant and thought- provoking to this day. For more info CLICK HERE


A 15th century folk poet, Köroglu was a role model for his contemporaries and a hero of his time. His adventures have been recounted for centuries and perhaps now with more interest than ever. Köroglu was one of the first people to pioneer the ideal of unconditional help for the poor and down trodden. He was also spoke out against government control and harassment.